In this section we shall cover the following topics:

• Comprehension of Implied Data
• How to Approach
• Practice Section

## Comprehension of Implied Data

The word ‘ comprehend ‘means ‘ to understand. We are required to go through a passage, grasp its gist, and then answer the questions based on it. It involves the use of our vocabulary, the ability to locate meanings, our intelligence to assess the real spirit of the passage and infer conclusions from the given content. Answers must be based on and confirmed by the information given in the passage and not by any outside source. The words information, elimination, and inference may be used as the main keys.

## How to Approach

By applying IEI FORMULA

INFORMATION: Every passage offers you some information. Some questions are straightforward and they may be answered from the information within the passage itself. The information in the passage may direct or indirect.

ELIMINATION: Elimination is saying no to alternatives on justifiable grounds until you have a positive answer. Usually, questions of the ‘true’ or ‘false’ category can be answered by this process of elimination.

INFERENCE: The word ‘ inference ‘ means to arrive at a logical conclusion. Some questions which can’t be answered by information or elimination require the process of inference. Inference may be either simple or complex

## Practice Section

#### Passage 1

Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion. The general recognition of this fact is shown in the proverbial phrase,’ It is the busiest man who has time to spare’. Thus, an elderly lady at leisure can spend the entire day writing a postcard to her niece. An hour will be spent in writing a postcard, another hunting for spectacles, half an hour to search for the address, an hour and a quarter in composition and twenty minutes in deciding whether or not to take an umbrella when going to the pillar box in the street. The total effort that could occupy a busy man for three minutes, all told may in this fashion leave another person completely exhausted after a day of doubt, anxiety, and toil.

1. What happens when the time to be spent on some work increases?

a) The work is done smoothly.

b) The work is done leisurely.

c) Work consumes all the time.

d) The work needs additional time.

Here the method of elimination and inference applies. A and D are eliminated at the first reading. The description that the lady who has enough leisure time takes the entire day in writing the postcard gives us the clue that the correct answer is ‘c’.

1. Explain the sentence: work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion’.

a) The more work there is to be done, the more time needed.

b) Whatever time is available for a given amount of work, all of it will be used.

c) If you have more time you can do some work?

d) If you have some important work to do, you should always have some additional time.

The answer here is b). This can be found out through simple inference. A statement is made right in the beginning of the passage and the story of the lady illustrates the fact that whatever time is available for a work people tend to use all of it.

1. Who is the person likely to take more time to do work.

a) A busy man.

b) A man of leisure.

c) An elderly person.

d) An exhausted person.

Here the answer is b). It requires inference from the facts given in the passage that more the time you have, the more you will need. Therefore, the answer is arrived at through complex inference.

1. What is the total time spent by the elderly lady in writing a postcard?

a) Three minutes.

b) four hours and five minutes.

c) half day

d) The entire day.

The answer is d).and it is based on the information given in the passage.

1. What does the expression ‘pillar box’ stand for?

a) A box attached to the pillar.

b) A box in the pillar

c) Box office.

d) A pillar type postbox.

The answer is d). It can be derived from implied information. The lady has to go to the pillar box to drop her letter. Now a one-line passage or very short passages comprising only two or three sentences are set. Normally in a short passage, there is a basic idea and all points are given to illustrate or analyze or prove the central idea. The answer must conform to the central idea. The accessory or secondary points may be true but they have a partial identity only and thus they cannot be the correct answers.

#### Passage 2

Accidents on roads can be prevented, provided the quality of roads is improved and the drivers are instructed in safety rules which they must follow for their own protection. It is also necessary that the illumination on the roads is adequate so as to prevent accidents at night.

1. This paragraph best supports the statement that-

a) Road accidents are solely due to improper illumination.

b) Road accidents result in a large number of deaths.

d) Safety rules are not taught properly to all drivers.

The answer for this is ‘c’, which is the central idea in the given passage. There is still another variation in which the passage is short, comprising one or two sentences, but the questions are so many. On the basis of Information Elimination Inference formula, answers can be located.

## Problems

#### Passage 1

The surprisingly abundant life of the Indian Ocean is confined to the upper layers; the deeper and especially the bottom waters are devoid of oxygen and are often permeated with hydrogen sulphide.

1. The sentence gives the information about

a) The life of the people near the Indian Ocean.

b) The reason why life exists in particular water layers.

c) The reason why oxygen is found in the bottom layers.

d) The reason why hydrogen sulphide is found in the bottom layers.

1. The bottom waters of the Indian Ocean

a) Have no oxygen

b) Have large amounts of oxygen

c) Have no hydrogen sulphide.

d) Contain oxygen and hydrogen sulphide.

3. The waters of the Indian Ocean

a) Are devoid of life.

b) Are always permeated with hydrogen sulphide.

c) Have life only in the lower layers.

d) Lack life and it is very surprising.

4. Which of the following is the most opposite of the word ABUNDANT, as used in the passage?

a) Plentiful

b) Minute

c) Insufficient

d) Meager

e) Tiny

1. The sentence suggests which one of the following:

a) Observers are surprised at how little life exists in the Indian Ocean.

b) Hydrogen sulphide is necessary to live.

c) Both oxygen and hydrogen sulphide are necessary to live.

d) Oxygen is not necessary for marine life

e) There are different layers of waters in the ocean

#### Passage 2

It is not luck but labour that makes men. Luck, says an American writer, is ever waiting for something to turn up; labour with keen eyes and strong will always turns up something. Luck lies in bed and wishes the postman would bring him news of a legacy; labour turns out at six and with busy pen ad ringing hammer lays the foundation for competence. Luck whines, labour watches. Luck relies on chance, labour on character. Luck slips downwards to self-indulgence; labour strides upwards and aspires to independence. The conviction therefore is extending that diligence is the mother of good luck. In other words, that a man’s success in life will be proportionate to his efforts, to his industry, to his attention to small things.

1. Which one of the following statements sums up the meaning of the passage?

a) Luck waits without exertion, but labour exerts without waiting.

b) Luck is self-indulgent but labour is selfless.

c) Luck waits and complains without working while labour achieves although it complains

d) Luck often ends in defeat, but labour produces luck.

1. Which one of the following words in the passage indicates that the writer does not ultimately reject the element of luck?

a) ‘ Luck ……is ever waiting’.

b) ‘ Luck whines’

c) Diligence is the mother of good luck

d) Luck … wishes the postman would bring him the news.

1. Which of the following statements is true about the following passage?

a) Luck is necessary for success.

b) Success depends only on hard luck.

c) The expectation of good luck always meets with disappointment.

d) Success is exactly proportionate to hard work.

9. ‘…… Labour turns out at six and with busy pen ringing hammer lays the foundation of competence ‘. What does this statement mean?

a) Hard work of all kinds makes people efficient.

b) Labour lays the foundation for the building.

c) The writer and the labourer are the true eyes of the society.

d) There is no worker who works so hard as the labourer who begins his day at six in the morning.

#### Passage 3

The last half of my life was spent at one of those painful epochs of human history, during which world was getting worse and past victories which had seemed to be definitive have turned out to be only temporary. When I was young, Victorian optimism was taken for granted. It was freedom and prosperity would spread gradually thought that throughout the world through an orderly process, and it was hoped that cruelty, tyranny, and injustice would continually diminish. Hardly anyone thought of the nineteenth century as a brief interlude between past and future barbarism.

1. The author feels sad about the latter part of his life because:

a) He was nostalgic about his childhood.

b) The world had not become prosperous.

c) The author had not won any further victories.

d) The world was painfully disturbed during that period of time.

1. The victories of the past:

a) Brought permanent peace and prosperity.

b) Ended cruelty, tyranny, and injustice.

c) Proved to be temporary events.

d) Filled men with a sense of pessimism.

1. The word definitive used in the passage means

a) Defined

b) Final

c) Temporary

d) Incomplete

13. During the Victorian age, people believed that

a) Strife would increase.

b) There would be unlimited freedom.

c). wars would be fought on a bigger scale

d) Peace would prevail and happiness would engulf the world.

#### Passage 4

To those who do listen, the desert speaks of things with an emphasis quite different from that of the shore, the mountain, the valley or the plains, whereas these invite action and suggest limitless opportunity and exhaustless resources, the implications and the mood of the desert are something different. For one thing, the desert is conservative, not radical. It is more likely to provide awe than to invite conquest. The heroism which it encourages is the heroism of endurance, not that of conquest. It brings a man up against this limitation, turns him upon himself and suggests values which more indulgent regions suppress. Sometimes it includes contemplation in men who have never contemplated before: And of all the answers to the question- what is a desert good for – ‘contemplation’ is perhaps the best.

1. In order to receive the desert’s message, the beholder needs to be

a) Courageous in his reaction.

b) Conservative in his responses.

c) A good listener.

d) Sensitive to nature.

1. The desert is unique among landscapes in that it encourages only

a) Contemplation

b) Indolence

c) Heroic Endeavor

1. d
2. b
3. d
4. e
5. a

1. The answer is (d). It can be derived from inference. Elimination will also help.(a) And (b) are eliminated easily on the basis of information. c) and d) are of a general nature, but you may come to the right conclusion by arguing that labour is not always selfless. One does hard labour for a purpose. Again, remember the general hint that you should prefer choice in such cases which include the largest possibility.
2. The answer is c).The answer can be arrived at by simple inference. This is the implication of the passage as well.
1. The answer is d).The information is in the last sentence.
1. The answer is a).The information is given in the middle of the passage and simple inference will help. The hammer reference to both pen and implies that the meaning here includes all kinds of work. The pen stands for mental work and hammer for the physical labour.